Radiation counters are used to detect the electrons given off by decaying C-14 as it turns into nitrogen.The amount of C-14 is compared to the amount of C-12, the stable form of carbon, to determine how much radiocarbon has decayed, thereby dating the artifact.It was unclear for some time whether the wiggles were real or not, but they are now well-established.These were superseded by the INTCAL series of curves, beginning with INTCAL98, published in 1998, and updated in 2004, 2009, and, most recently, 2013.After the organism dies, carbon-14 continues to decay without being replaced.To measure the amount of radiocarbon left in a artifact, scientists burn a small piece to convert it into carbon dioxide gas.Ionization Inverse Square Law Interaction of RT/Matter Attenuation Coefficient Half-Value Layer Sources of Attenuation -Compton Scattering Geometric Unsharpness Filters in Radiography Scatter/Radiation Control Radiation Safety Radio-carbon dating is a method of obtaining age estimates on organic materials.The word "estimates" is used because there is a significant amount of uncertainty in these measurements.

These factors affect all trees in an area, so examining tree-ring sequences from old wood allows the identification of overlapping sequences.

The curve showed two types of variation from the straight line: a long term fluctuation with a period of about 9,000 years, and a shorter term variation, often referred to as "wiggles", with a period of decades.

Suess said he drew the line showing the wiggles by "cosmic schwung" – freehand, in other words.

There are separate graphs for the southern hemisphere and for calibration of marine data.

To produce a curve that can be used to relate calendar years to radiocarbon years, a sequence of securely dated samples is needed which can be tested to determine their radiocarbon age.

These factors affect all trees in an area, so examining tree-ring sequences from old wood allows the identification of overlapping sequences.The curve showed two types of variation from the straight line: a long term fluctuation with a period of about 9,000 years, and a shorter term variation, often referred to as "wiggles", with a period of decades.Suess said he drew the line showing the wiggles by "cosmic schwung" – freehand, in other words.There are separate graphs for the southern hemisphere and for calibration of marine data.To produce a curve that can be used to relate calendar years to radiocarbon years, a sequence of securely dated samples is needed which can be tested to determine their radiocarbon age.Exponential Decay Formula: A = A" is the original amount of the radioactive isotope that is measured in the same units as "A." The value "t" is the time it takes to reduce the original amount of the isotope to the present amount, and "k" is the half-life of the isotope, measured in the same units as "t." The applet allows you to choose the C-14 to C-12 ratio, then calculates the age of our skull from the formula above.